New Jim Crow Briefing

The New Jim Crow


  1. Written by Michelle Alexander, JD
  2. Jim Crow Segregation Laws existed in the USA from 1870 to 1965
  3. Wide ranging, state level statues that legalized racial Aparthied in America
  4. Apartheid is a Dutch word which means “Aparthood”
  5. Apartheid (/əˈpɑːrt(h)aɪt/, especially South African English: /əˈpɑːrt(h)eɪt/, Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦɛit]; transl. ”separateness”, lit. “aparthood”) was a system of institutionalized racial oppression that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.
  6. This system denied non-white South Africans basic human rights, such as the right to vote. Apartheid was characterized by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (boss-hood or boss-ship), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation’s minority white population. According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Indians and Coloureds, then black Africans. The economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day.
  7. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.
  8. The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural lifestyle: “Black”, “White”, “Coloured”, and “Indian”, the last two of which included several sub-classifications. Places of residence were determined by racial classification.
  9. Between 1960 and 1983, 3.5 million black Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods as a result of apartheid legislation, in some of the largest mass evictions in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black population to ten designated “tribal homelands”, also known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states. The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans.
  10. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the 20th century. It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about extensive arms and trade embargoes on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became increasingly militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention. Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups.
  11. Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison. Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, leading to multiracial elections in April 1994.
  12.  Jim Crow Segregation was the American version of Aparthied
  13. “Separate and unequal” services on racial lines to maldevelope an underclass for cheap undesirable labor.
  14. “The War on Drugs” was a legal framework to restore JIM CROW ERA Apartheid in the USA. It’s basic policies continue to this very day
  15. Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion is a 1998 book by journalist Gary Webb. The book is based on “Dark Alliance”, Webb’s three-part investigative series published in the San Jose Mercury News in August 1996. The original series claimed that, in order to help raise funds for efforts against the Nicaraguan Sandinista government, the CIA supported cocaine trafficking into the US by top members of Nicaraguan Contra Rebel organizations and allowed the subsequent crack epidemic to spread in Los Angeles. The book expands on the series and recounts media reaction to Webb’s original newspaper exposé.
  16. In the USA Whites make up around 59.1% of the population, Black people make up around 12.6% of the population and Latino/Hispanicss around 18.3%.
  17. A new mode of racism served to imprison approximately 1 in 8 African American men.
  18.  “Law and Order Politics” being used for mass incarceration of people of color
  19. Stunningly comprehensive well disguised plan to reinstate racial caste system.
  20. Affecting employment, housing, education, public benefits, voting rights and jury duty
  21. 1982 Reagan Administration accelerated all of these trends
  22. In 1986 a major Anti-Drug Act took effect concentrating militarized policing on the inner city.
  23. Crack cocaine was introduced by the Italian Mafia and CIA into the Black ghettos in the 1980’s amounting to a planned black genocide.
  24. 1998 the CIA acknowledged its IRAN-CONTRA Affair in Nicaragua right wing paramilitaries that were smuggling crack/coke into USA and distributing to fund anti-communist movements in central America.
  25. Prosecution however only focused on Crack not cocaine by a ratio of 100:1. 
  26. The prison population exploded during the War on Drugs from 300,000 to over 2 million. Blacks were 40% of that population.
  27. Once released they became a permanent under-class
  28. Another book by John Pfaff: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration
  29. The Prison population is mostly privatized an industry that brings in $81 billion annually 
  30. 1 in 51 Americans is or has been in Prison
  31. Recidivism Rates are high; within 3 years 67.8% are rearrested and go back inside, after 5 years the rate is 76.6%
  32. Whites are 60% of population; only 39% of prison population
  33. Hispanics are 18% of population; 19% of prison population
  34. Blacks are 12% 0f population; 40% of prison population
  35. In 2016 90% are in State prisons and 10% Federal
  36. The Privatized Prison system is a huge money maker called “The Prison Industrial Complex”
  37. 11% of Prisons are privatized
  38. Major investors or utilizers of cheap prison labor include Wells Fargo, BoA, Fidelity Group, GE and Vanguard Group, TWA, Macy’s, Chevron, Victoria’s Secret, Wal-mart, Target, IBM, ATT, Starbucks and Nike.
  39. SUCH AS GEOGROUP and CORECIVIC, publicly traded firms
  40. This is tied with racially motivated policing/ sentencing
  41. All American Prisons are “cruel and unusual punishment”
  42. They break up families, socialize brutal criminal behavior and don’t stop either drugs or crime from occurring. Once you lose your vote, you can’t get good jobs and can be used as long term cheap labor.
  43. USA has more people in prison than any other nation
  44. Wages in prisons are $0.12 to $0.40 cents per hour
  45. When people get out they return to RED-LINED Ghettos, with bad schools, bad hospitals, and bad infrastructure in undesirable parts of the town.
  46.  Poor housing stock, inadequate childcare, bad healthcare access, bad schools, higher crime as a result and militarized policing then give two options: the military or cheap labor or crime.
  47. Ultimately this creates a legalized negative feedback loop that underdeveloped black American, reinstitute Jim Crow Era facts on the ground, disguised as Law and Order. 

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